Sustainable development (SD) is a term that is still gaining popularity and has been widely used in scientific literature, legal acts and strategic documents for years. And although the essence of this concept seems to be quite understandable, the definition and precise interpretation of what SD is gives rise to acute discussions among theoreticians and practitioners alike. The ambiguity and general character of the term was reflected in its various definitions and interpretations. In the late 1990s, environmental economist Barbara Caroll established over 500 definitions! In view of such a multitude of them, it is necessary to properly read and understand the context and the real intentions for which the concept is used. The lack of an unambiguous definition means that it functions as a catch-phrase, behind the facade of which various contents may be hidden.
Among the most common definitions of sustainable development are formulated by eminent American environmental economists.H.E. Daly - established the principles of using the environment and natural resources in a sustainable and sustainable way. Here they are:
1. With regard to the physical dimensions of inputs in the economy: by consciously limiting the overall scale of use of each resource, transform technological progress from the current model that maximizes physical flow into a model that maximizes efficiency understood as the ratio of economic effects achieved with a given flow
2. For renewable resources: by exploiting them at a level that guarantees maximum sustainable income, prevent their depletion. More specifically, this means that:a) for resources serving as inputs (e.g. plants, animals) the exploitation rate should not exceed the natural regeneration rate,b) for resources serving as "receivers" of waste, such as the earth's atmosphere, soil or surface waters, it should not exceed the renewable assimilation capacity,3. For non-renewable resources: maintain the overall stock of natural capital by exploiting its non-renewable natural components (such as mineral deposits) at a rate that matches the supply of renewable substitutes to the economy.
The (goal) of Sustainable Development is to undertake and solve contemporary development problems so that social and economic development is possible in an unlimited time perspective. The SD assumes limiting mechanisms in economic processes, the negative effects of destructive activities for the economy, society and the natural environment, which have appeared in recent decades. "SD is a process integrating all human activity, commonly reduced to three dimensions: economic, social and environmental. In this context, it is worth mentioning the most universal and synthetic approach to sustainable development, defining it as an activity that should be economically viable, Ecologically Sond and Socially Acceptable.
The correlation of these three basic foundations is the key to solving problems posed by the development of our civilization.
Sustainable development was defined by United Nations General Assembly in 1987:
“development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
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